Spirit Of Islam: Hazrat ‘Ali (‘alayhis salam) – the Fourth Caliph - Spirit Of Islam

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Hazrat ‘Ali (‘alayhis salam) – the Fourth Caliph

Posted 22 April 2007 - 09:47 PM (#1) User is offline   fayaz-halai 

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Assalamu 'Alaykum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuhu

I would like to discuss the Caliphate of Hazrat Ali and would like to have comments and have a discussion on the whole story which i will post part by part.

Hazrat Ali Ibn Abi Talib-The Fourth Caliph

(35th to 40th Hijra:656 to 661 A.D)

 

INTRODUCTION

 

After the martyrdom of Hazrat Usman ,Hazrat Ali the son of Abu Talib was chosen Caliph,so he was the fourth Caliph of Islam.

 

         Hazrat Ali was one of the cousins of the Hazrat Muhammad .Later on Hazrat Fatima (Radiallah huta'alaa anhaa)the beloved daughter of the Prophet was married to Ali thus he became the son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad also.

 

         Abu Talib,the father of Hazrat Ali and Uncle of the Prophet was one of the Chieftains of Banu Hashim.After the death of Hazrat Abdul Muttalib(the  Prophet's grandfather) it was Abu Talib who accepted the responsibility for the maintenance of  Hazrat Muhammad who was still a child of nine years.Again, after the revelation,when  Hazrat Muhammad began to call the people towards Islam, and the Quraish became his bitter enemy,it was Abu Talib who supported Hazrat Muhammad in every way.Fatima(Radiallah huta'aalaa anha) the wife of Abu Talib and mother of Hazrat Ali was very affectionate to him.Hazrat Muhammad also loved them and their children from core of his heart.

 

           Abu Talib's pecuniary condition was not very satisfactory,so when Hazrat Muhammad stood on his own feet he took his son Ali with him to lighten the burden of his uncle.Thus Hazrat Ali got the chance of acquring knowledge and training for life under Hazrat Muhammad just from his boyhood.That is why when the Prophet called the people towards Islam,it was Hazrat Ali,first among the boys who responded the call.Hazrat Ali having acquired good training from the outset had become a perfect man of excellent manners.
Gustakhe Nabi Ke Liye Ab Apne Khuda Se

Main Hazrat-e-Moosa Ka Asaa Mang Raha Hu

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Posted 22 April 2007 - 10:07 PM (#2) User is offline   Sister-Nur-Husayn 

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Bismillah

Assalamu Aleikum

May I ask who wrote what u have posted on Sayyidina Ali

Jazak Allah Khayran

wassalam

Nur

<BR>Unfortunate is he who cannot gain a few sincere friends during his life and more unfortunate is the one who has gained them and lost them (through his deeds) - Sayyidina Ali</P><P><BR>www.ihsanpath.com <BR>www.alhaqq.net
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Posted 23 April 2007 - 04:27 AM (#3) User is offline   Syed_Maqsood 

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Subhan Allah. Keep posting.
Qaak Mujhme Kamaal Rakha hai,
Mustafa (Sallalaho alaihiwasallam) ne sambhaal rakha hai.
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Posted 23 April 2007 - 08:41 PM (#4) User is offline   fayaz-halai 

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Originally posted by: Sister Nur.

BismillahAssalamu AleikumMay I ask who wrote what u have posted on Sayyidina Ali Jazak Allah KhayranwassalamNur

Waalaykum assalaam  warahmatullah my sister.......

I have a book from which i am posting.

Gustakhe Nabi Ke Liye Ab Apne Khuda Se

Main Hazrat-e-Moosa Ka Asaa Mang Raha Hu

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Posted 23 April 2007 - 08:58 PM (#5) User is offline   Sister-Nur-Husayn 

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My brother,

I asked for the name in case i wish to purchase it.

Jazak Allah Khayran

wassalam

<BR>Unfortunate is he who cannot gain a few sincere friends during his life and more unfortunate is the one who has gained them and lost them (through his deeds) - Sayyidina Ali</P><P><BR>www.ihsanpath.com <BR>www.alhaqq.net
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Posted 23 April 2007 - 09:10 PM (#6) User is offline   fayaz-halai 

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Continued....

 
After accepting Islam,He would always remain in the sittings and meetings of Hazrat Muhammad .During the fourth year of Nubwwah(Prophethood),one day when Hazrat Muhammad declared before a hashemite gathering "O Sons of Muttalib,I want to offer you the best blessings of this world and that of the hereafter,who from you comes forward to accompany and help me?" In reply to this question all remained silent accept one and that was Ali who declared,"O Messenger of Allah,although i am too young,and too weak yet I shall help you with all my power and shall prove my self strong arm for you".Hazrat Muhammad repeated his question thrice,and it was only Ali who responded every time.Then the Prophet said to him."You are my heir and brother".This was not an empty,childish claim of Hazrat Ali but during his whole life he fulfilled the promise he had made to the Prophet.

       On the night of "Hijrat" when the Prophet left Makkah for Madina with Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique,Hazrat Ali slept on the Prophet's bed,covering his body,from head to foot,in such a way that the people of Quraish,who had surrounded the house of the Prophet could be mistaken that the Prophet was still lying on his bed.This was very dangerous situation,and there was every chance that the infidels might took him for the Prophet and could assasinate him.But Hazrat Ali,who used to be always ready to give up his life for the sake of Prophet did not care at all.He remained sleeping till morning and in the morning had to face the rage of irritated infidels.

Gustakhe Nabi Ke Liye Ab Apne Khuda Se

Main Hazrat-e-Moosa Ka Asaa Mang Raha Hu

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Posted 24 April 2007 - 09:13 PM (#7) User is offline   fayaz-halai 

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Continued....

        After some days of the Prophets 'hijra',Hazrat Ali too migrated to Madina where in the second year of Hijrah the Prophet gave him Daughter Fatima(RadiAllah hu ta'aala anhaa) in marriage to him and Hazrat Ali started his independent life.When after hijrah the warning infidels began to attack Madina ,and compelled the Prophet to declare Jihad,Hazrat Ali took part in every battle.He speacially showed great courage and chivalry in the battle of Badr,Uhad,Khandaq,Khyber,Hunain,etc.He also led regiments of the Islamic army in many skirmishes and was sucessful everywhere.
       
         After the Prophet's Demise,Hazrat Ali had the honour of washing the Prophets body, and performing the last rituals.In short he actually worked as the right hand of Prophet from the beginning to end.

         It is stated that because of his relation and connection with Prophet ,He had justifiably a wish to became the Caliph of the Prophet.But when the Ummah agreed upon the Chilphat of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddque,Hazrat Ali clamly accepted the verdict of the Ummah.He worked as an adviser and a member of the Shura(Advisory Council) during the reigns of the First two Chaliphs.Hazrat Umar had especially great confidence in him.Hazrat Usman to sought his valuable advice and services.And as we have already seen he often gave some very vice advive to the third Caliph also
.

Gustakhe Nabi Ke Liye Ab Apne Khuda Se

Main Hazrat-e-Moosa Ka Asaa Mang Raha Hu

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Posted 25 April 2007 - 08:05 PM (#8) User is offline   fayaz-halai 

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Continued....

                             CALIPHATE

        After Hazrat Usman's martyrdom,the seat of Caliphate remained vacant for three days.The insurgents had created great havoc in Madina.Even in such a situation the re-establishment of the institution of the Caliphate,politically as well as religiously was a must.Hence,some elder companions of the Prophet consisting of the Muhajireen and Ansar came to Hazrat Ali,Hazrat Talha and Zubair were also among them.They expressed before Hazrat Ali the necessity of the election of a Caliph,Hazrat Ali comprehended what they wanted so he said,"I also shall support him,whom you elect cliph.But I should make it clear that I have no lust for the post."

        Now they began to insist and said that there was no other person fit for the high post,so there was no question of electing anybody else except him.But Hazrat Ali again objected ,and said that he would like better to be a minister or adviser than to be the Caliph.But the people insisted again and again,and Hazrat Ali had no alternative but to accept the Caliphate,especially when the question of Umma's interest was involved.Oath of the Caliphate was taken in a general gathering of the Muslims where elder and distinguished Companions of the Prophet,both from Muhajireen and Ansar were present.After the Oath taking ceremony,he took the charge of the Caliphate in the last week of Zill Hijja,35 H.Thus Hazrat Ali became the fourth Pious Caliph of Islam.


Gustakhe Nabi Ke Liye Ab Apne Khuda Se

Main Hazrat-e-Moosa Ka Asaa Mang Raha Hu

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Posted 26 April 2007 - 06:43 PM (#9) User is offline   fayaz-halai 

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Continued....

                                             CONQUESTS

         The chain of Islamic conquests that was started from the days of Prophet and continued during the reigns of the three Caliphs,was discontinued during Hazrat Ali's reign because of the civil war and disturbances.some conquests were made,however,in Seestan and Kabul and according to Bulazuri,Kokan was invaded in 38 H.

          Seeing the Muslims busy in civil war,some insurgents raised head in various places of Iran.The provinces of Kimran and Fars rebelled ,and there were some other areas where from rebellious activities were reported.Hazrat Ali,inspite of the internal troubles,ordered Ziad bin Abih to take action against those insurgents.He promptly crushed them and brought the rebellious areas under control.
  


Gustakhe Nabi Ke Liye Ab Apne Khuda Se

Main Hazrat-e-Moosa Ka Asaa Mang Raha Hu

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Posted 27 April 2007 - 08:24 PM (#10) User is offline   fayaz-halai 

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Continued....

                     The Root Cause Of Civil War.

         Just after taking charge of Caliphate,the first problem Hazrat Ali had to face was the revenge of Hazrat Usman's blood.In fact,it was his duty to find out and punish the assassins of the Late Caliph,and it cannot be said that Hazrat Ali took a lenient view of the matter.He wanted to deal with it,with due severity but there were also some difficulties in this connection.The first and foremost was that there was none who could be blamed justly as the direct assassin or assassins of the Late Caliph.There was also no direct witness as such.Of course Hazrat Nayela(Radiallah hu taala anhaa) the wife of Hazrat Usman was present at the place of occurrence but she was a purdah observing lady,and did not recognize any body except Muhammad bin Abu Bakr.But,he too had gone away being ashamed of a remark by Hazrat Usman.And there was none else whom she could recognize.So there was not legally a sufficient evidence.Moreover,the gang to which the assassins belonged ,was at that time beyond the control of the Caliph.Hazrat Ali at that time at least,was not in a position to arrest the assassins.Though he had a firm intention to bring the culprits before the court of Law,but it was not possible at the moment.

           On the other hand,people were,so much aggrieved of Hazrat Usman's horrible assassination that they wanted at once the revenge for his blood.Even some great and distinguished companions of the Prophet,including Hazrat Talha and Zubair ,and the mother of the faithful Hazrat Ayesha Siddiqa(Radiallah huta'ala anha) also wanted the same and without delay.One day Talha,Zubar and some other Companions called on the Caliph and reiterated their demand in this connection.The Caliph replied that he was not lenient or unmindful to that
but he was still not in a position to take action.It might require sometime.


Gustakhe Nabi Ke Liye Ab Apne Khuda Se

Main Hazrat-e-Moosa Ka Asaa Mang Raha Hu

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Posted 28 April 2007 - 09:33 PM (#11) User is offline   fayaz-halai 

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Continued....


Dismissal Of Amir Muaviya.

The question of revenge of Hazrat Usman's blood was blamed on Hazrat Ali (ra) because he did kill the assassins that were responsible. As we have seen in the previous chapter,because of Hazrat Usman's simple heartedness,some persons of Banu Umayya had captured keyposts in the state,and were using their force for personal gains and ends.This was one of the causes of revolts against Hazrat Usman.So,when Hazrat Ali became the Caliph,he wanted to remove such persons from the key post at once.Amir Muaviya,the governor of Syria was considered one of them.The Caliph wanted to Dismiss Hazrat Muaviya from the governorship of Syria without delay.SOme of his wellwishers,however advised him not to remove Hazrat Muaviya in haste.Those who advised Hazrat Ali to restraint in the matter of removing the governors and officials of Hazrat Usman's period and wait as long as they take the oath of his Caliphate,were great diplomats and statesmens like Mugheera bin Shoba,Ibn Abbas and some other Companions of great repute.Hazrat Ali however did not listened to them and in 36 H. he issued orders of dismissal for all those who were appointed during Hazrat Usman's period.He appointed Suhail bin Haneef as the governer of Syria in place of Amir Muaviya and Suhail bin Haneef according to this order went to Syria.

Amir Muaviya was a great diplomat and statesmen.He had a long administrative experiance of about 22 yrs as the governor of Syria.So it was not an easy task to remove him.He did not even allow Suhail bin Haneef to enter the border of Syria,and so Suhail was compelled to come back from Tabuk.

To be continued.............

Gustakhe Nabi Ke Liye Ab Apne Khuda Se

Main Hazrat-e-Moosa Ka Asaa Mang Raha Hu

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Posted 30 April 2007 - 09:35 PM (#12) User is offline   fayaz-halai 

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Continued....

          
With the order of Amir Muaviya dismissal,Hazrat Ali has also sent a letter to him demanding to take oath of allegiance for the Caliph.This was the time when people in general as well as the great Companions of Prophet were greatly grieved of Hazrat Usman's Martyrdom,of the faliure of the Caliph to retaliate for his blood.Amir Muaviya thought it appropriate time to act.He hanged the Blood immersed shirt of Hazrat Usman and  the fingers of Hazrat Nayela that were cut off at the time of Hazrat Usman's Martyrdom on the Jame Masjid of Damascus.The muslims of Syria were greatly agitiated to see the shirt and fingers.People would come in large numbers to see and got highly enraged.

           The messenger of Hazrat ALi who had been stayed by Hazrat Muaviya observed the situation and then the Amir also sent his own messengers with the messenger of Hazrat Ali.The messenger of Amir Muaviya handed over blank envelope to Hazrat Ali which he saw and said nothing.Hazrat Ali enquired from his messenger about the situation in Syria and when he discribed what he had seen,Hazrat Ali said to himself
"O Allah ,thou knowest i had no concern with assassination of Usman".

Gustakhe Nabi Ke Liye Ab Apne Khuda Se

Main Hazrat-e-Moosa Ka Asaa Mang Raha Hu

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Posted 02 May 2007 - 09:14 PM (#13) User is offline   fayaz-halai 

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Continued....

     Preparations to face Amir Muaviya.

       Now Hazrat Ali apprehended well what Amir Muaviya wanted,so he began preparations to face him.This was the first chance in the history of Islam that two groups of Muslims were to take up arms against one another.So some of the Prophets Companions,who were the circumspect in the matter,like saad bin Abi Waqqas,Abdullah bin Umar,Muhammad bin Muslima,etc,avoided to take sides with either of them,when Hazrat saad bin Waqqas in this connection ,he replied,"If you want me to take part in this battle,then please give me a sword that can distinguish between Muslims and Non-Muslims". Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar said,"Kindly dont compel me to take part in a battle about which it is yet settled whether it is on the right path or wrong".In the same manner Hazrat Muhammad bin Muslima said,"The  Prophet had commanded me to fight the Idolaters.But If there arose any occasion to take arms against Muslims I should break my sword on the rocks of Uhud,and I did yesterday as i was once commanded by the Messenger of Allah".Hazrat Usama bin Zaid also did not reply in affirmative.Hazrat Talha and Zuber taking permission from Hazrat Ali went away from Madina to Makkha. Although some prudent Companions of the Prophet abstain,yet there were many others who took side of the Caliph according to the commandment of the Quraan.

"Obey Allah,Obey the Messenger (of Allah) and the ruler from amongst you"

They offered their services to Hazrat Ali, the Caliph
.

Gustakhe Nabi Ke Liye Ab Apne Khuda Se

Main Hazrat-e-Moosa Ka Asaa Mang Raha Hu

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Posted 12 May 2007 - 09:18 PM (#14) User is offline   fayaz-halai 

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Continued....


Hazrat Ayesha(Radiallahu taalaa anhaa) Stood For The Revenge Hazrat Usman's Blood.

        While Hazrat Ali was still preparing to face Air Muaviya,there arose another dangerous problem for him which created a very delicate situation.The situation was created due to Hazrat Ayesha's(RadiAllah hu taala anha) stand in regard to the revenge for Hazrat Usman's blood.

         During the days Hazrat Usman was assassinated in Madina,Hazrat Ayesha(RadiAllahhu taalaa anha) was in Makkah.She had gone to perform Hajj.She heard about the trageic Martyrdom of Hazrat Usman in Makkah, and was deeply shocked.While she was coming back to Madina,on the way she heard that people had chosen Hazrat Ali as the Caliph but the situation in the city was still very grim.There were disturbance and chaos.Hearing this she returned to Makkah again,where Talha and Zubair also reached after a few days.They also described the situation very grave,and told that they had come to Makkah being afraid of the situation.

         Hearing all about the situation in Madina,HAzrat Ayesha(RadiAllahhu taalaa anha) stood for reformation and the revenge for Hazrat Usman's blood.Hearing about her return from the way,many people gathered around her.Hazrat Ayesha(RadiAllahu taalaa anha) made a speech before the gathering,and asked the people to get ready for the revenge of Hazrat Usman's blood,to rectify the prevailing situation and established peace and tranquillity.

Gustakhe Nabi Ke Liye Ab Apne Khuda Se

Main Hazrat-e-Moosa Ka Asaa Mang Raha Hu

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Posted 14 May 2007 - 09:26 PM (#15) User is offline   fayaz-halai 

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Continued....
         


             On hearing the speech of Ummul Mo'mineen(RadiAllahhu taalaa anha),thousands of people became ready to retaliate for Hazrat Usman's martyrdom.Abdullah bin 'Aamir Hazrami,the governer of Makkah was the first to respond to the call.Moreover,those people of Bauu Umayya who had made their escape to Makkah,also gathered around Hazrat Ayesha(RadiAllah hu taalaa anha).Abdullah bin Aamir arranged for the means of conveyance and other expenses,and thus an army of about three thousand men was ready to march.All the other mothers of the Faithful also favoured and supported this march.

          After these preparations,Hazrat Ayesha(RadiAllahu taalaa anha) was in favour of going to Madina to face the assassins of Hazrat Usman and the followers of Abdullah bin Saba present there.Some opined to go towards Syria,but at last,Bosra was fixed as the destination.In case of going to Madina,the other mothers of the Faithful too were ready to accompany but when it was decided to march towards Bosra,they changed their minds.Hazrat Hafsa (RadiAllahu taalaa anha)was,however,still ready to accompany but she too was stopped by her brother Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar.

To be continued.............

Gustakhe Nabi Ke Liye Ab Apne Khuda Se

Main Hazrat-e-Moosa Ka Asaa Mang Raha Hu

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Posted 21 May 2007 - 08:42 PM (#16) User is offline   fayaz-halai 

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Continued....
         


         This was actually a very critical and delicate situation for the muslims in genral and for the chief companions of the Prophet in particular.All were at sixes and sevens none was in a position to arrive at a clear cut decision.On one side there was Hazrat Ayesha Siddiqa(RadiAllahu taalaa anha),the mother of the faithful,who was also the daughter of the Prophet's great and most favourite companion,the firs Caliph of Islam,Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq;and on other side there was Hazrat Ali ,the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet whom the Prophet loved more than others,and who was then the Caliph of Muslims,and so it was also the religious duty of the Muslims that he should be obeyed and followed.

        However,this army of the Muslims under the command of Hazrat Ayesha(RadiAllahu taalaa anha) started from Makkah for Bosra in the month of Safar 35 H.

         It was a day of mourning for the general Muslims and a black day in Islamic History.It is stated by Tabari,that on the day when the caravan started to move,the muslims in general wept so bitterly that the day was called "Yaumun-naheeb"(the day of weeping).Hazrat Ayesha(RadiAllahu taalaa anha) came out of the city of Makkah surrounded by the crowds of Muslims.In those crowds there were many sincere persons but there were also some mischief mongers who were exciting her to go ahead.On the other hand the sincere Muslims were crying.

To be continued.............




Gustakhe Nabi Ke Liye Ab Apne Khuda Se

Main Hazrat-e-Moosa Ka Asaa Mang Raha Hu

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Posted 16 August 2007 - 09:49 PM (#17) User is offline   fayaz-halai 

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Continued....



          When the caravan reached at the spring of mawab,Hazrat Ayesha (RadiAllahu taalaa anha)heard barking some dogs.She asked the name of the spring,and when it was told to her that it was the sprin of Mawab,she at once cried."Let me go back from here.The messenger of Allah had once told me not to include myself among them on whom the dogs of MAwab would bark".But the mischief mongers did not want her to go back,so fourty of them assured her by swearing that it was not the spring of Mawab.Thus Hazrat Ayesha (RadiAllahu taalaa anha)agreed to go forward.

        When she arrived near Bosra,Usman bin Haneef who was the governor there from HAzrat Ali's side,came to resist her.People advised him not to disturb the Ummul Momineen and let Hazrat Ali come but he did not listen to people's advice.As a result there was a skirmish in which Usmaan bin Haneef was defeated and arrested.However he was set free by the order of HAzrat Ayesha(RadiAllahu taalaa anha) after the defeat of Usmaan bin Haneef some people who were either the followers of Abdullah bin Saba or belonged to the gang who had rebelled against Hazrat Usman bin Affan were arrested and killed.But this action created some resentment against Hazrat Ayesha (RadiAllahu taalaa anha)and her party.


To be continued.............


Gustakhe Nabi Ke Liye Ab Apne Khuda Se

Main Hazrat-e-Moosa Ka Asaa Mang Raha Hu

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Posted 18 August 2007 - 10:06 PM (#18) User is offline   fayaz-halai 

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Continued....



        
Hazrat Ali's Preparations.

As we have already seen earlier,it was very difficult time for HAzrat ALi,the Caliph.Amir Muaviya had refused to concede his governorship and submit to him.And while the caliph was making preparations to deal with the uncompromising attitude of Amir Muaviya,another difficult problem was created through this march of HAzrat Ayesha(RadiAllahu taalaa anha).Now,HAzrat Ali had either to face or not Hazrat Ayesha(RadiAllahu taalaa anha).IF he would remain inactive ,it would have very damaging effect on the institution of the Caliphate itself.But if he would come out to face the problem then confrontation against the Ummul Momineen was certain.There were however,two points in favour of confrontation.Firstly ,it was necessary to maintain and keep order and save the prestige of Caliphate so that none could defy it.Secondly HAzrat Ali knew that many mischief-mongers had also taken shelter behind the Ummul Momineen so that it was quite necessary to punish them.Inspite of this Hazrat Ali on one side and Hazrat Ayesha(RadiAllahu taalaa anha) on the other tried their best to avoid their confrontation but it could not be possible because of the seditious elements.

To be continued.............



Gustakhe Nabi Ke Liye Ab Apne Khuda Se

Main Hazrat-e-Moosa Ka Asaa Mang Raha Hu

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Posted 19 August 2007 - 01:01 AM (#19) User is offline   Mystic 

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Originally posted by: Sister Nur.

My brother,

I asked for the name in case i wish to purchase it.

Jazak Allah Khayran

wassalam


Sister if you want a good book on Imam Ali (as) i suggest your purchase 'Hadrat Ali, r. a.' by Prof. Masud-ul-Hasan.

You can read parts of this book online too
http://muslim-canada.org/hadratali.htm
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Posted 19 August 2007 - 01:04 AM (#20) User is offline   Mystic 

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Originally posted by: Fayaz Halai



Continued....


The question of revenge of Hazrat Usman's blood had become a great headache for Hazrat Ali but he still created another irritant problem for himself.

I don't like the wording used in this paragraph. Therefore i am going to edit it.



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