Assalamu 'Alaykum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuhu
I would like to discuss the Caliphate of Hazrat Ali and would like to have comments and have a discussion on the whole story which i will post part by part.
Hazrat Ali Ibn Abi Talib-The Fourth Caliph
(35th to 40th Hijra:656 to 661 A.D)
After the martyrdom of Hazrat Usman ,Hazrat Ali the son of Abu Talib was chosen Caliph,so he was the fourth Caliph of Islam.
Hazrat Ali was one of the cousins of the Hazrat Muhammad .Later on Hazrat Fatima (Radiallah huta'alaa anhaa)the beloved daughter of the Prophet was married to Ali thus he became the son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad also.
Abu Talib,the father of Hazrat Ali and Uncle of the Prophet was one of the Chieftains of Banu Hashim.After the death of Hazrat Abdul Muttalib(the Prophet's grandfather) it was Abu Talib who accepted the responsibility for the maintenance of Hazrat Muhammad who was still a child of nine years.Again, after the revelation,when Hazrat Muhammad began to call the people towards Islam, and the Quraish became his bitter enemy,it was Abu Talib who supported Hazrat Muhammad in every way.Fatima(Radiallah huta'aalaa anha) the wife of Abu Talib and mother of Hazrat Ali was very affectionate to him.Hazrat Muhammad also loved them and their children from core of his heart.
Abu Talib's pecuniary condition was not very satisfactory,so when Hazrat Muhammad stood on his own feet he took his son Ali with him to lighten the burden of his uncle.Thus Hazrat Ali got the chance of acquring knowledge and training for life under Hazrat Muhammad just from his boyhood.That is why when the Prophet called the people towards Islam,it was Hazrat Ali,first among the boys who responded the call.Hazrat Ali having acquired good training from the outset had become a perfect man of excellent manners.